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CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Customizing Strategies for Adoptive T-Cell Therapy
Hyeseon Park ,Yoo Kyung Kang, and Gayong Shim*
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) technology is at the forefront of cancer immunotherapy innovation, offering precise and personalized treatment strategies. In this review, we discuss CRISPR/Cas9’s ability to precisely edit the genome, its impact on immune checkpoint control, and its application in immune cell engineering, where it surpasses traditional gene editing techniques. Originally inspired by bacterial defense mechanisms, this technology has made great strides in cancer immunotherapy as a mechanism to specifically target the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in immune checkpoint blockades. In addition, CRISPR/Cas9 plays an important role in cancer treatment by facilitating genetic modifications to enhance the properties of adoptive cell therapy, optimizing the therapeutic potential of this approach. This review provides an overview of the development of CRISPR/Cas9, its important role in immune checkpoint control, applications in immune cell engineering, and the current status of clinical trials. However, safety concerns related to off-target effects and unintended mutations require continued research and caution. Continued advances in CRISPR technology hold the promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment paradigm, providing personalized and effective therapies for patients with various types of cancer.