In liver fibrosis, activated hepatic stellate cells are known to overexpress fibroblast activation protein. Here we report a targeted antifibrotic peptide-delivery system in which fibroblast activation protein, which is overexpressed in fibrotic regions of the liver, liberates the antifibrotic peptide melittin by cleaving a fibroblast activation protein-specific site in the peptide. The promelittin peptide is linked to pegylated and maleimide-functionalized liposomes, resulting in promelittin-modified liposomes. The promelittin-modified liposomes were effective in reducing the viability of activated hepatic stellate cells but not that of control cells. In three types of liver fibrosis mouse models, intravenously administered promelittin-modified liposomes significantly reduces fibrotic regions. In addition, in the bile duct ligation mouse model promelittin-modified liposome-treatment increases overall survival. Although this peptide-delivery concept was tested for liver fibrosis, it can potentially be adapted to other fibrotic diseases.