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In Situ Nanoadjuvant-Assembled Tumor Vaccine for Preventing Long-Term Recurrence
Quoc-Viet Le, Juhan Suh, Jin Joo Choi, Gyu Thae Park, Jung Weon Lee, Gayong Shim (*co-corresponding), Yu-Kyoung Oh
13 (7)
Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a breakthrough in cancer therapy, a monotherapy approach is not sufficient. Here, we report an immune checkpoint inhibitor-modified nanoparticle for an in situ-assembled tumor vaccine that can activate immune systems in the tumor microenvironment and prevent the long-term recurrence of tumors. Adjuvant-loaded nanoparticles were prepared by entrapping imiquimod (IQ) in photoresponsive polydopamine nanoparticles (IQ/PNs). The surfaces of IQ/PNs were then modified with anti-PDL1 antibody (PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs) for in situ assembly with inactivated tumor cells and immune checkpoint blocking of PDL1 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1). The presence of anti-PDL1 antibodies on IQ/PNs increased the binding of nanoparticles to CT26 cancer cells overexpressing PDL1. Subsequent near-infrared (NIR) irradiation induced a greater photothermal anticancer effect against cells treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs than cells treated with plain PNs or unmodified IQ/PNs. To mimic the tumor microenvironment, we cocultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with CT26 cells treated with various nanoparticle formulations and NIR irradiated. This coculture study revealed that NIR-inactivated, PDL1Ab-IQ/PN-bound CT26 cells induced maturation of dendritic cells to the greatest extent. Following a single intravenous administration of different nanoparticle formulations in CT26 tumor-bearing mice, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs showed greater tumor tissue accumulation than unmodified nanoparticles. Subsequent NIR irradiation of mice treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs resulted in tumor ablation. In addition to primary tumor ablation, PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs completely prevented the growth of a secondarily challenged CT26 tumor at a distant site, producing 100% survival for up to 150 days. A long-term protection study revealed that treatment with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs followed by NIR irradiation inhibited the growth of distant, secondarily challenged CT26 tumors 150 days after the first tumor inoculation. Moreover, increased infiltration of T cells was observed in tumor tissues treated with PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs and NIR-irradiated, and T cells isolated from splenocytes of mice in which tumor recurrence was prevented showed active killing of CT26 cells. These results suggest that PDL1Ab-IQ/PNs in conjunction with NIR irradiation induce a potent, in situ-assembled, all-in-one tumor vaccine with adjuvant-containing nanoparticle-bound, inactivated tumor cells. Such in situ nanoadjuvant-assembled tumor vaccines can be further developed for long-term prevention of tumor recurrence without the need for chemotherapy.